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Exhibition catalogue from a survey of photographic art that "catalogues, classifies, archives, and orders numerous photographic elements into a complete unified piece." Curated with text by Charles Stainback; contributions by 25 artists, including Dennis Adams, John Baldessari, Bernd & Hilla Becher, Christian Boltanski, Sarah Charlesworth, Robbert Flick, Robert Heinecken, Rick Hock, Allan Kaprow, Louise Lawler, Sol Lewitt, Annette Messager, Ray Metzker, Richard Prince, Edward Ruscha, Andy Warhol, and Neil Winokur. 84 pages; color and b&w reproductions throughout; 10.5 x 9 inches. Exhibition checklist, biographies.
Year:
1992
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1st Ed.
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Intl Center of Photography
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english
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84 / 92
ISBN 10:
0933642202
ISBN 13:
9780933642201
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Bitter in the Mouth: A Novel

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BY CHARLES STAINBACK

PECIAL COLLECTIONS July 31 - October 16, 1992 International Center of Photography Midtown Tour Itinerary 1993 January 14 - March 5 Mary & Leigh Block Gallery Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois April 23 - May 22 Arizona State University Art Museum Tempe, Arizona June 26 - August 22 The Chrysler Museum Norfolk, Virginia October 15 - December 5 Bass Museum of Art Miami Beach, Florida January 9 - March 6 The Museums at Stony Brook Stony Brook, New York April 13 - May 30 Vancouver Art Gallery Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada June 21 - August 24 Ansel Adams Center The Friends of Photography San Francisco, California September 13 - November 6 Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery Lincoln, Nebraska

SPECIAL COIIECTIOHS THE PHOTOGRAPHIC ORDER FROM POP TO NOW BY CHARLES STAINBACK Publication of the catalogue was made possible by The Robert Mapplethorpe Foundation. This exhibition is made possible by a grant from the New York State Council on the Arts and assisted by grants from the Merlin Foundation and Christie Sherman. INTERNATIONAL CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPHY/THE FRIENDS OF PHOTOGRAPHY UNTITLED 56

THE FRIENDS OF PHOTOGRAPHY, founded in 1967 in Carmel, California, is a not- for-profit membership organization that operates the Ansel Adams Center in San Francisco. The programs of The Friends in publications, exhibitions, education and awards to photographers are guided by a commitment to photography as a fine art and to the discussion of photography through critical inquiry. The publications of The Friends and the exhibitions at the Ansel Adams Center are the primary benefits of membership; they emphasize current photographic practice as well as criticism and the history of the medium. Membership is open to everyone. To receive additional information and a membership brochure, please write the Membership Director, The Friends of Photography, Ansel Adams Center, 250 Fourth Street, San Francisco, California, 94103. SPECIAL COLLECTIONS: The Photographic Order from Pop to Now Copyright 1992 by the ; International Center of Photography. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. All images reproduced in this catalogue, unless otherwise noted, are copyright 1992 by the artists. Library of Congress Catalogmg-in-Publication Data Special Collections: the photographic order from pop to now / an exhibition organized by Charles Stainback. p. cm. ISBN 0-933286 -62-7 — ISSN 0163-7916 1. Art and photography—History— 20th century— Exhibitions. 2. Art. Modem— 20th Century— Themes, motives— Exhibitions. I. Stainback, Charles, 1952- . II. International Center of Photography N72.P5S64 1992 779\97'00904507473—dc20 92-25596 CIP 192 Distributed by: D.A.P./Distnbuted Art Publishers 636 Broadway, Room 1208 New York, NY 10012 Tel 800-338 -BOOK Fax 212-673-2887

SPECIAL (IUKTIIU THE PHOTOGRAPHIC ORDER FROM POP TO NOW DENNIS ADAMS JOHN BALDESSARI BERND & HILLA BECHER CHRISTIAN BOLTANSKI SARAH CHARLESWORTH SUSAN EDER JUDYFISKIN ROBBERT FLICK ROBERT HEINECKEN RICK HOCK DOUGLAS HUEBLER ALLAN KAPROW LOUISE LAWLER SOL LEWITT ARNAUD MAGGS ANNETTE MESSAGER RAY METZKER GARRY FABIAN MILLER RICHARD PRINCE ALAN RATH EDWARD RUSCHA MITCHELL SYROP ANDY WARHOL ROBERT WATTS NEIL WINOKUR

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2010 http://www.archive.org/details/specialcollectioOOstai

Special Collections: The Photographic Order From Pop to Now It matters much with what and in what order each element is set. — Lucretius (c. 99 to 50 b.c .) 1 You can observe a lot just by watchin'. —Yogi Berra (1963)- In 1936 renowned author and critic Walter Benjamin sug- gested in his seminal essay The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction that it was "futile" to question whether photography was art, but deemed the central issue to be "whether the very invention of photography had not transformed the entire nature of art. "' While Benjamin's sug- gestion helped manifest some of these very transformations, it was not until the dynamic changes of the early 1960s that photography was indeed seen as transforming the arts — not only through the increasing uti- lization of the photograph by artists of all fields but also with the expanded definition of the medium of photography by photographers themselves. The artists in Special Collections trace the shift in photography's role in the arts in the years "from Pop to Now." What these artists share is an interest in constructing artworks that cata- logue, classify, archive, and order numerous photographic elements into a complete, unified piece. Rejecting Henri Cartier-Bresson's notion of the "decisive moment," wherein a perfectly constructed composition is captured in a single frame, these artists have created works ranging from a few architectural images in multi-part displays to more than seven thousand portraits in a single art work. These developments paralleled the Modernist "gestalt" MARCEL Bicycle Wheel - Philadelphia Museum ol Art of the art object to the Postmodernist "reading" of the art object as a text. In the thirty years from Pop to the present — from Andy Warhol's first photo-silkscreen paintings in 1962 of the "borrowed" news photo to Conceptual artist Douglas Huebler's project "to photograph the existence of everyone alive" to Postmodern artist Richard Prince's "gangs" 4 produced in the 1980s—the traditional presentation of the photograph (the 8 x 10 glossy) has shifted. More and more the photograph has come to be a component: incorporated into artworks as but one of many diverse elements in mixed-media, across-media pre- sentations. Marcel Duchamp essentially disrupted the Modernist art tradition in 1913 when he produced his first "ready-mades" — a urinal, a bottle rack, a bicycle wheel mounted on a stool — in an attempt to dislodge art's emphasis from the precious art object. This pure and simple isolation of the object out of context was also evident in the objets trouves and other ambiguous artworks of the Surrealists. Some fifty years after Duchamp's flippant but nonetheless pro- found transformations, Andy Warhol, Robert Rauschenberg, and Ed Ruscha— seeking to depart from the highfalutin approach to art-making of the Abstract Expressionists— brought to their art with the "ready- DUC H AMP Ready Made, 1964 .-. ,<- Galiena Q Timeline 1955 Warsaw Pact formed Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a bus, Montgomery, AL James Agee, James Dean, Albert Einstein, and Charlie Parker die The Family of Man, MoMA, NYC Inexpensive transistor radios introduced Disneyland opens, Anaheim, CA The Mickey Mouse Club, Captain Kangaroo, and The $64,000 Question premiere on TV Village Voice begins publication Rock Around the Clock, by Bill Haley and His Comets 1956 Egypt seizes the Suez Canal Eisenhower reelected President First nuclear-power generating plant. Great Britain Bertolt Brecht. Tommy Dorsey, and Jackson Pollock die This is Tomorrow, Whitechapel Art Gallery, London Construction on Guggenheim Museum, by Frank Lloyd Wright, begins. NYC Howl, by Allen Ginsberg Heartbreak Hotel. Elvis Presley's first hit 1957 USSR launches Sputnik and the "space race" begins Black students prevented from entering Central High in Little Rock, AR Ford releases the Edsel Bouffant hairdos become popular Leave It to Beaver and Wagon Tram premiere on TV On the Road, by Jack Kerouac Wake Up, Little Susie, by The Everly Brothers 1958 Nikita Khrushchev becomes Premier of the USSR NASA established First transatlantic jet service Commercial copier introduced by Xerox Paul Outerbridge and Edward Weston die Allan Kaprow, environment, Hansa Gallery, NYC tes Amencains, by Robert Frank, published in France Stereo LPs and hula hoops introdui ed First Pizza Hut opens, Kansas City At the Hop. by Danny and the Juniors 1959 Fidel Castro takes power in Cuba Premier Nikita Khrushchev visits US Alaska and Hawaii become states

made" mass-media photograph or the look of the "easily made" snapshot, the values of mass production, the banality of everyday imagery, and the appearance of an unauthored view. Their doing so unquestionably prompted a corresponding rethinking of photography's artistic role. New uses of the pho- tograph by these artists— repeating media images silk- screened in a grid on a large canvas; paintings and collages with photographs and a variety of other materials; the "not arty" 5 photographs of apparently insignificant subjects pre- sented in small books— were stunning departures from most conventional and traditional artworks of the day, most notably, "fine-art" photography. This was clearly a time of radical and dramatic changes in the form of the art object. Unmistakably, reproduction as offered by picture maga- zines and newsreels differs from the image seen by the unarmed eye. Uniqueness and permanence are as closely linked in the latter as are transitoriness and repro- ducibility in the former. — Walter Benjamin (1936) 6 In his essay, Benjamin also acknowledged that with the means of mechanical reproduction and the ability for tremen- dous image multiplication from a single original, the "aura" of "authenticity" in relation to the viewers actual first-hand response and sentiment to the unique artwork would be lost. An important shift in the early 1960s was this departure from "unique" works of art to other, unconventional forms of expression and presentation. These new forms were no longer simply framed objects on the wall but included Happenings, Earthworks, Book Art, Fluxus, Performance Art, and Conceptual Art— artworks that not only abandoned the easel, but in many cases moved out of the gallery space entirely, a step that prompted an increased and broader creative use of the camera. While numerous artists since the 1960s have utilized the strategy of incorporating many photographs into one artwork, the work included in Special Collections has been selected for the specific intentions with which the artists have assembled their photographs. These works are distinct from photographic representations that are pieced together to make a complete scene or combined to form a mosaic of many smaller photo- graphs, as with many of David Hockney's photo-works from the late 1970s and early 1980s. Rather, these works—whose components are classified according to types, repeated because of similarities, and reproduced as a part of a system or the documentation of an activity— shun the notion of picto- rial re-representation. The significance of the individual photograph in the artworks in Special Collections is diminished, if not virtually inconse- quential; the artistic process of image selection and subse- quent presentation is first and foremost. In these artworks the notion of the masterpiece— in which the evidence of the artistic process is compressed into one singular, irreplace- able artwork— is attenuated with each photograph, whether it is part of an artwork comprised of only a few elements or of many thousands, all of which have equal value or importance to every other image in the collective artwork. These collections of numerous photographs into specific arrangements, as in Neil Winokur's Cindy Sherman: Totem (1986); or into classifications according to similar subjects or characteristics, as in Richard Prince's Palms and Decals (1990), Judy Fiskin's Geometric Facades (1983). and Mitchell Syrop's Constellations (1992), are self-contained works that are in a sense taxonomic displays, much like sci- entifically organized collections of specimens. They are spe- cial collections of images, with the specific preconceptions of the artist creating multi-image, encyclopedic works that are reminiscent of the pages of the high-school yearbook, the mug-shot album, or the variety of types and sizes found in the industrial machine catalogue. And like these regimented displays, neatly and routinely organized row after row in a grid, numerous artworks in this exhibition also utilize the uni- formity of the grid format. First photographs of earth taken from space Barbie doll and Velcro introduced Naked Lunch, by William S. Burroughs Breathless, directed by Jean-Luc Godard Mack the Knife, by Bobby Darin 1960 John F. Kennedy elected President OPEC founded New Forms-New Media. Version II. Martha Jackson Gallery. NYC Laser discovered, resulting in first hologram Psycho, directed by Alfred Hitchcock The Twist, by Chubby Checker 1961 Berlin Wall erected Bay of Pigs invasion Yuri Gagarin. Soviet cosmonaut. becomes first man in outer space JFK creates Peace Corps The Art of Assemblage. MoMA, NYC NY Yankee Roger Maris breaks Babe Ruth's home-run record for a single season 7b Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis John Glenn becomes first American to orbit earth Pentagon announces that US pilots are flying combat missions in Vietnam Marilyn Monroe dies Andy Warhol, Campbell's Soup paintings. Ferus Gallery. Los Angeles John Steinbeck awarded Nobel Prize One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. by Ken Kesey First James Bond movie. Doctor No. directed by Terence Young 1963 JFK assassinated; Lyndon B. Johnson becomes President Martin Luther King delivers "I have a dream" speech Georges Braque. Jean Cocteau. and Robert Frost die Edward Ruscha. Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles By or of Marcel Duchamp or Rrose Selavy. Pasadena Art Museum, CA Fluxus Festival in Dusseldorf, Germany Touch-Tone telephone introduced Instamatic camera and cartridge film introduced by Kodak Instant color film introduced by Polaroid

Seemingly scientific purposefulness is also evident in the captions or titles of many of these works. In most instances the title is an integral if not essential component of the appreciation and understanding of what is presented. The commonplace and purely descriptive titles of such pieces as Ed Ruscha's Every Building on the Sunset Strip (1966), Christian Boltanski's The 62 members of the Mickey Mouse Club in 1955 (1972), Garry Fabian Miller's Honesty. The fer- tile months, the greening, the growing, the dying, the seeded hope (1985), and Robbert Flick's One Thousand Signs— along Lincoln Boulevard looking East. Culver to Wilshire to Culver, (7:30 a.m . to 5:15 p.m.) (1990), provide detailed descriptions of the artist's intentions, to accompany the viewer's initial observations of the work. This information also con- tributes to the pedantic and/or comic intrigue of many works in Special Collections, including John Baldessari's Horizontal Men (with One Luxuriating) (1984), Robert Watts's Chest of Moles, (Portrait of Pamela) (1965-85), Susan Eder's Fish Value Scale (Price Pyramid) (1991), and Dennis Adams's Patricia Hearst— from A to Z (1979-89). at times, an essential aspect of the new visual forms that have transformed the art world from Pop to now. The things I want to show are mechanical. Machines have less problems. I'd like to be a machine, wouldn 't you? — Andy Warhol (1963) 7 t: 1 lyy K. Si f?j :a IP :gs \m i SkJ L^J L^kj LstLi Lr; -- -. tsrsn ! I cr?j.' ' i it-'-i' ' ens ' r S^sl f ANDY WARHOL 32 Soup Cans, 1961-62 * York Cily Beyond sharing a similar strategy of presentation or execution of their artworks, the artists in Special Collections have been instrumental in the various artistic movements and emerging artistic issues of the past three decades. The cataloguing, classifying, and ordering of photographic images can be seen in many of the works from Pop to Postmodernism. The diversity of materials and approaches available to artists throughout the 1960s—video, installations, performance, book arts — spawned other alter- native approaches to art-making in the 1970s that extended into the 1980s and 1990s. New presentations and technolo- gies, often hybrids of techniques, all utilized or incorporated photographs. The photograph quickly became an integral and, he most prevalent photographic images in the late 1950s and early 1960s could be found in the streets: in maga- zines and newspapers, on billboards and advertisements. Their subjects were, as Warhol put it, "images that anybody walking down Broadway could recognize in a split second — comics, picnic tables, men's trousers, celebrities, shower cur- tains, refrigerators, Coke bottles"* — all the great modern things that the Abstract Expressionist tried to forget. These types of lowbrow, mass-produced, mass-media images ultimately became the sub- jects of many of the startling new artworks in the 1960s, as the tradi- tional forms of art — namely painting and sculpture —were reconsidered. The break from the conventional artistic and photographic forms echoed earlier 20th-century movements: the Surrealist and Dadaist works of the 1920s and 1930s by John Heartfield, Man Ray, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, and El Lissitzky, and the "ready- mades" of Duchamp, which had instantly transferred art's infatuation from the precious art object and the significance of artistic production to a new emphasis on the artist's idea. Duchamp was unquestionably the first artist to advocate, in an unaestheticized way, the use of existing objects in the name of art. This strategy of the appropriation of ordinary images or objects into an artwork—comic strips, cigarette ads, the American flag, beer cans, TV images, and soup Society for Photographic Education founded The Feminist Mystique, by Betty Friedan Cleopatra, directed by Joseph Mankiewicz Surfin' USA. by The Beach Boys 1964 LBJ reelected president US Civil Rights Act is passed. prohibiting job discrimination on basis of sex, race, religio n, or national origin Khrushchev ousted: Leonid Brezhnev becomes First Secretary of the Party Nelson Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment Martin Luther King awarded Nobel Peace Prize Stuart Davis and August Sander die Cibachrome color prints from transparencies introduced Ford Mustang debuts The Beatles perform on The Ed Sullivan Show Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. by Marshall McLuhan The Spy Who Came in from the Cold, by John Le Carre / Want To Hold Your Hand, by The Beatles 1965 LBJ orders large-scale bombing of North Vietnam Anti-Vietnam War protests Malcolm X assassinated Selma to Montgomery civil rights march Riots in the Watts section of Los Angeles Congress establishes National Endowment for the Arts Winston Churchill, Le Corbusier, T. S. Eliot, and Dorothea Lange die Lava lamps and Frisbees introduced Miniskirts and bell-bottom pants become fashionable The Sound of Music, directed by Robert Wise (I Can't Get No) Satisfaction, by The Rolling Stones 1966 Black Panthers founded in Oakland National Organization for Women (NOW) founded by Betty Friedan Hippie movement emerges: LSD and marijuana gain attention Transatlantic direct-dial phone call Jean Arp, Andre Breton, Alvin Langdon Coburn. Walt Disney, and Hans Hoffman die The Photographer's Eye. MoMA, NYC

cans— became an essential tactic of Pop art. This approach — with its appropriation of everyday artifacts and everyday life—could in no way be confused with the traditional fine-art aesthetic. Typically, these new artworks took on popular cul- ture, notions of mass production, and America's consumer society as their subtexts. Such works as Warhol's 1960 Campbell's Soup Can series departed radically from the high minded, majestic paintings of the Abstract Expressionists of the 1950s, namely Jackson Pollock, Barnett Newman. Mark Rothko, Clyfford Still, and Willem de Kooning, making Warhol himself or his artistic anal- ogy—the image of the soup can—the symbol of what Pop art was all about. Shortly after the soup can paintings, Warhol took Pop one step further with the utilization of photographic silk-screening, a process by which he could make his appropriations more quickly and mass produce them. Warhol's 1962 photo-silkscreen Baseball, a photograph of Roger Maris hitting his record-breaking sixty- first home run, was appropriated from a news- paper photograph of this event. Warhol's interpretation was a mechanically reproduced painting in a giant grid that repeated the photo- graph from the newspaper front page—gritty and crudely defined— and propelled it to the forefront of artistic practice and discourse. While Warhol gamely acknowledged the loss of originality in his mass-produced "Factory" techniques with the repetition of the borrowed mass-media image, what was equally signifi- cant to his use of the "grided" photograph was the dramatic shift in form of the photographic image—enlarged, repeated on canvas, and presented as a painting—that he engineered. This shift in form influenced the subsequent use of the pho- tograph by artists and coincided with a new generation of photographers and image-makers departing from the look of the traditional art photograph. ANDV WARHOL Baseball, 1962 The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art. Kansas City, Missouri [Gift of the Guild of the Friends or Art and a group of friends of the gallery Concurrent- with Pop and running a parallel path was Fluxus, an art movement that even more than Pop rejected the notion of the rarefied art object and joyously renounced "high art." Also an outgrowth of the ideas of Marcel Duchamp as well as John Cage, Fluxus was not a mainstream, commercially viable art movement as Pop was. Robert Watts, a seminal figure in the Fluxus movement, incorporated the photograph into many of his works, including FLUXPOST 17-17 (1964), a grid of postage-stamp portraits. Like Warhol's work at this time Watts's work also included the "borrowed" photographic image as a component in his work. Another work by Watts, Chest of Moles, (Portrait of Pamela) (1965-85), is a small, glass-fronted chest containing numerous small photographs embedded in plastic of the moles on a woman's skin; a taxonomic collection of specimens that have been docu- mented, preserved, and presented with acad- emic attentiveness, artistic inventiveness, and a hint of droll humor. Truly a departure from the conventional art of the preceding decade, Watts's artwork, like the Fluxus movement itself, "was serious about not being serious. "- Instead of scenes that seem like paintings, Siskind's pictures ARE paintings as they appear on the printed page—which is where most people today see paintings that they see. They are reproductions that have no originals. — Harold Rosenberg (1959) 10 I arold Rosenberg's observation in 1959 on the conse- Iquences of mechanical reproduction almost 30 years after Benjamin himself questioned the uniqueness of the photographic image was also significant. " Art photography," no matter how innovative the photographer at this time, still had painting as its measure, namely, Abstract Expressionist painting. Within a few years, as exhibitions of Pop art burst H Contemporary Photographers: Toward a Social Landscape. George Eastman House, Rochester, NY Whitney Museum's new building, designed by Marcel Breuer, opens. NYC Batman. Star Trek. The Dating Game, and Mission: Impossible premiere on TV Blow-Up. directed by Michelangelo Antonioni The Sounds of Silence, by Simon and Garfunkel 1967 Six-day Arab/Israeli War Race riots in Newark, NJ. and Detroit, Ml Thurgood Marshall sworn in as first black Supreme Court justice John Coltrane. Woody Guthrie. Edward Hopper, and Rene Magntte die New Documents. MoMA, NYC The Persistence of Vision. George Eastman House. Rochester, NY Friends of Photography established, Carmel, CA Microwave ovens introduced First Super Bowl, Los Angeles Rolling Stone begins publication The Medium is the Message, by Marshall McLuhan Light My Fire, by The Doors 1968 Richard Nixon elected President US soldiers massacre ci vilia ns in My Lai, Vietnam Peace talks begin with North Vietnamese, Pans Martin Luther King and Robert F. Kennedy assassinated Anti-war demonstrations at Democratic National Convention. Chicago USSR invades Czechoslovakia Marcel Duchamp, John Steinbeck, and Weegee die John Lennon and Yoko Ono "bed- in'' for peace. Amsterdam Term aerobics is coined Film rating system - G, PG. R, and X. adopted 60 Minutes and Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In premiere on TV 2001: A Space Odyssey, directed by Stanley Kubrick Hey Jude, by The Beatles 1969 Neil Armstrong becomes first man to walk on the moon Largest anti-war protest in US history. Washington, DC US and USSR begin Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) Manson murders. California Gay Pride movement emerges, NYC Ho Chi Minh, Mies van der Rohe die

onto the American cultural scene, photography, typically rele- gated to a marginal standing in relation to the more "seri- ous" arts, would increasingly be utilized by artists in paintings and as a source for paintings and, as always, viewed in relationship to paintings. Not surprisingly, even with the photograph's growing acceptance and usage it was still "painting" that was seen as the pinnacle of artistic expres- sion. Removed from its usual context (small and in a frame, magazine, or book) and placed in a revised context (enlarged, arranged in a grid, included in a collage with paint), the photograph took on a different stature and a new meaning. The photographs that Warhol, Rauschenberg and Ruscha used in their works were not at all like the photographic icons of the 1950s. Indeed, Warhol's and Rauschenberg's appro- priated photographs were not theirs at all, and Ruscha's were so banal, so unartistic they could have been made by almost any- one. With these new uses of the photograph the author was of little consequence. But with the departure from the single, small- scale image, the photograph as utilized by Warhol and Rauschenberg now had the impact of a painting; their photographs were unquestionably paintings. Even Ruscha's images could be seen as such, as John Coplans, then curator and critic, observed in 1963: "Ruscha is the first artist in the [Pop] movement to have published... a book entitled 'Twenty- six Gasoline Stations.' A series of photographic images, it should be regarded as a small painting. " 11 The works that Ruscha was producing, while not on the grand scale of those of Warhol or Rauschenberg, nevertheless announced new forms and totally distinct uses of the photo- graphic medium. The appearance of the seemingly unauthored view as seen in Ruscha's books Twenty-Six Gasoline Stations (1962), Some Los Angeles Apartments (1965), Every Building CHARLES SHEELER Pulverizer Building - Ford Plant, 1927 on the Sunset Strip (1966), Nine Swimming Pools and a Broken Glass (1968), and Various Small Fires and Milk (1964), evolved alongside Pop art (and from similar sources), but Ruscha's use of photography and the basic appearance of his images introduced a direct, minimal look to photography's lexicon. In retrospect Ruscha's intentionally unartistic photo- graphs were in a sense precursors of the non-representational Minimalist aesthetic as well as the systemic, often witty works of the Conceptualists. With Ruscha's books, according to noted critic Benjamin Buchloch, "the mode of the presentation itself became transformed: instead of lifting photographic (or print- derived) imagery from mass-cultural sources and transforming these images into paint- ings... Ruscha would now deploy photography directly, in an appropriate printing medium. "'- As Buchloch also observed, Ruscha's photog- raphy "explicitly situated itself as much out- side of all the conventions of art photography as outside of those of the venerable tradition of documentary photography." 13 In the late 1950s, a few years before Ed Ruscha produced his photographic books and Warhol painted his soup cans, Bernd and Hills Becher began to document various industrial architectural subjects — blast furnaces, water towers, lime kilns, cooling towers, half-timbered houses —pro- ducing objective records (the Bechers call them "typologies") of fast-disappearing industrial architecture. These photographs acknowledged the notion of the traditional photographic docu- ment but, like the works of Ruscha, broke from the conven- tional presentation. The rigid arrangements of six or nine photographs in a grid —dead-on views with a minimal aes- thetic—were departures from the popular, romanticized Modernist views of early 20th-century industrialization that transformed banal industrial sites into gleaming futuristic visions —typified by Charles Sheeler's photographs of the Ford Motor plant in Dearborn, Michigan, in 1927. The grid formation Witkin Gallery opens. NYC Woodstock Music Festival Andy Warhol's Interview magazine begins publication Slaughterhouse-Five, by Kurt Vonnegut Easy Rider, directed by Dennis Hopper Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In, by the Fifth Dimension 1970 US invades Cambodia Anti-war protestors shot by National Guardsmen at Kent State University Mark Rothko, Barnett Newman. Bertrand Russell, Jimi Hendrix. and Jams Joplin die Robert Smithson completes Spiral Jetty. Great Salt Lake, UT CD and VCR developed The Beatles break up Cigarette ads banned from TV and radio M*A*S*H, film directed by Robert Altman /'// Be There, by The Jackson Five 1971 Supreme Court upholds busing to achieve racial integration Lt. William L. Calley convicted of murdering civilians at My Lai Voting age lowered from 21 to 18 East Pakistan proclaims indepen- dence; becomes Bangladesh Louis Armstrong, Diane Arbus, Margaret Bourke White, and Jim Morrison die Art and Technology. Los Angeles County Museum Tulsa, by Larry Clark Castelli Graphics begins repre- senting photographers, NYC Pentagon Papers published All in the Family premieres on TV The Female Eunuch, by Germaine Greer The French Connection, directed by William Friedkm Imagine, by John Lennon Plastic Ono Band 1972 Nixon reelected president US combat troops leave Vietnam Nixon goes to China and USSR Democratic National Headquarters in Watergate Complex burglarized, Washington, DC Arab guerrillas murder Israeli Olympic athletes, Munich Diane Arbus retrospective. MoMA. NYC Ms. magazine begins publication and LIFE magazine ceases Jonathan Livingston Seagull, by Richard Bach American Pie, by Don McLean

allows the meticulous photographs of these sometimes unusual, at other times beautiful structures to be compared, analyzed, and scrutinized. The use of the grid by Bernd and Hilla Becher, Andy Warhol, and many other artists at the time was not in itself ground- breaking. In fact Modernist art, with its emphasis on the future, scientific invention, technology, and originality, adopted the grid, which is seen in the works of numerous artists prior to Warhol, namely: Piet Mondrian, Josef Albers, Ad Reinhardt, Jasper Johns, and Agnes Martin. Also adopted by the influential Conceptualist and Minimalist Sol LeWitt, the grid promised the hard-edged look of industrially manufac- tured materials; it removed the appearance of, or actually removed, the artist's hand from the artwork; and it provided a means for achieving the non-representational image. LeWitt's artworks, like the Minimalist work of Carl Andre and Kenneth Nolan, strived to eliminate any relationship to past artistic forms. With the use of the photograph and its rectan- gular regimented format and mechanical precision, LeWitt has extended his investigations to a presentation of like sub- jects that echoes the inherent repetition and reproducibility of the photographic process itself in what he calls "photo- grids. " These give related but disparate subjects a false sense of order within an ordered display. As seen in the works of many artists in Special Collections, the grid proclaims equality and consistency, it is symmetrical and modular, and it allows for orderly repetition. As writer and critic Rosalind Krauss has noted, "Structurally, logically, axiomatically, the grid can only be repeated. And, with an act of repetition or replication as the 'original' occasion of its usage within the experience of a given artist, the extended life of the grid in the unfolding progression of his work will be one of still more repetition, as the artist engages in repeated acts of self-imitation." 14 Employed in distinct and varied ways by many of the artists and photographers in Special Collections— Bernd and Hilla Becher, Christian Boltanski, Robert Heinecken, Rick Hock, Sol LeWitt, Garry Fabian Miller, Robbert Flick, Arnaud Maggs, Richard Prince, Mitchell Syrop, and Robert Watts—the grid fulfills these artists' shared desire for a formalist, quasi-scientific, non-hierarchical, and ultimately Modernist strategy for a form of presentation that accommodates the cataloguing of photographic information and/or images that by definition are geometric, modular, mathematical, and orderly, and yet allows for unlimited possibilities. Everywhere progress is being made in the acceptance of photography as a valid, vital and needful art form. — Beaumont Newhall (1964) 15 In 1967, just a few years after the Pop explosion, the land- mark photography exhibition "The Persistence of Vision" at the George Eastman House in Rochester, New York, made it clear that art photography (as distinct from the use of photo- graphs by artists) had undergone profound change. In the exhibition catalogue, curator Nathan Lyons contended: "Today the photograph is being considered as a relative artifact of metaphoric concern, much in the same sense as an automo- bile, comic strip, or soup can. If we consider man's visualizing activities in relation to the photographic picture, then we may readily understand how the nature of sequential concerns, or the multiple exposure, might be considered more naturalistic perceptually than our traditionally held concept of the straight photograph." 16 Lyons noted that the work of photographers such as Donald 'Blumberg, Charles Gill, Robert Heinecken, Ray Metzker, Jerry Uelsman, and John Wood was atypical of photography prior to that time, and that the photograph was no longer going to be simply a "straight" singular image. Metzker, with his repeti- tive strips of images as seen in Telephone Booth (1966) (see figure on page 21), and Heinecken, with his use of pho- tograms and images from mass media, began expanding the potential of the photographic medium. By utilizing multiple exposure, alternative printing techniques, new imaging tech- nologies, and various formats, this new generation of photog- 1973 Vietnam War ends Supreme Court legalizes abortion with Roe vs. Wade War erupts in Middle East between Egypt. Israel, and Syria World oil crisis Spiro Agnew resigns; Gerald Ford named Vice President Bobby Darin, Pablo Picasso, and Edward Steichen die Looking at Photographs: 100 Pictures from the Collection of The Museum of Modern Art, published by MoMA SX-70 . one -step instant photogra- phy, introduced by Polaroid Gravity's Rainbow, by Thomas Pynchon You Are the Sunshine of My Life. by Stevie Wonder 1974 Nixon resigns; Gerald Ford becomes President Arab oil embargo ends Patricia Hearst kidnapped by Symbionese Liberation Army American Pop Art. Whitney Museum of American Art , NYC International Center of Photography founded, NYC Digital watches and pocket calculators marketed Heimlich maneuver introduced by Dr. Henry M. Heimlich Hank Aaron breaks Babe Ruth's career record of 714 home runs Chinatown, directed by Roman Polanski Sunshine on My Shoulders, by John Denver 1975 Fall of Saigon Khmer Rouge communists take over Cambodia Spanish Dictator General Francisco Franco dies and Juan Carlos proclaimed King Former Teamster boss Jimmy Hoffa disappears and presumed murdered Josephine Baker and Walker Evans die New Topographies: Photographs of a Man-Altered Landscape. International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, Rochester, NY Center for Creative Photography established. University of Arizona. Tucson Betamax VCR by Sony and video games by Atari are introduced Looking for Mr. Goodbar. by Judith Rossner Jaws, directed by Steven Spielberg Love Will Keep Us Together, by The Captain and Tennille 10

raphers departed sharply from the status quo. With their many revised and refined applications of the photograph, they succeeded in debunking the traditional canons of art photography and creating a different kind of photography, a different photographic order. larger audience. For large-scale Earthworks, artworks utilizing remote locations and the land itself as the creative medium, as in the case of Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty (1969), the photographs are now the only evidence of this seminal work since its erasure by the rising water of the Great Salt Lake. Looking at this shift in photography's aesthetic, art critic Andy Grundberg observed in 1987 that "a pivotal change in attitude was the focus on photogra- phy rather than on the photograph, for the photograph was fettered by tradition, while photography as a medium covered any kind of pho- tographic imagery, and could accommodate great latitude. " 17 This latitude, coupled with the desire of artists in the 1960s and early 1970s to "de-materialize" 18 the art object, made photography the perfect vehicle for aesthetic revolution. The drastic departures instigated by Warhol and Rauschenberg and a host of Pop artists and the concurrent revisions of photographic presentations by photographers themselves took advantage of this shift. With a camera in their hands and a newfound awareness of its potential, artists involved in Conceptual Art, Happenings, and Earthworks not only inadvertently subverted many of the long- standing conventions of "art photography," they did so while simultaneously embracing photography's veracity. With an ever- increasing awareness of the photograph's potential as an adjunct to the artistic process, the notion of the artist and the camera became commonplace. For ephemeral forms of art such as Earthworks and Happenings that could be experienced directly by just a handful of participants, and often for only a short period of time, photography, in many instances, was the only form through which that artwork could be brought to a ROBERT SM Spiral Jetty, Eslate of Robert < Allan Kaprow's Happenings, begun in the late 1950s, also relied on the photograph as evidence of these enigmatic, illogi- cal, and seemingly unpredictable events. Happenings were an art form that denied any boundaries in the conventional sense of art; they were without a doubt mixed-media, mixtures of this or that. Based on instructions given by the artist as to what to do when, where, and how, Happenings also had a good measure of chance and improvisa- tion. The camera became for most people the only connection to the actual event or artwork, a mechani- cal liaison for the comprehension and appreciation of what was hn Weher Gallery, New York City unquestionably not a static work of art. In describing Days Off: A Calendar of Happenings (1970), Kaprow states: "This is a calendar of past events. The days on it are the days of the Happenings. They were days off. People played." 19 Like the photo album, Kaprow's Days Off\s a simple and direct presentation of his collection of photographic docu- ments. The photographs (calendar) —arranged chronologically and according to the specific Happenings —give the random- ness of these playful days and disparate multi-faceted events and places a structure, allowing for a post-facto look at an elu- sive art form and a documentation of these fleeting moments. All art after Duchamp is conceptual in nature because art only exists conceptually. — Joseph Kosuth (1969) 2 " ITHSON 1970 1976 Jimmy Carter elected President NJ Supreme Court gives permis- sion for Karen Anne Quinlan's par- ents to shut off life support Chairman Mao Zedong dies Josef Albers, Alexander Calder, Imogen Cunningham. Howard Hughes, Man Ray, Paul Strand and Minor White die First personal computer intro- duced by Tandy Corporation and Apple First supersonic jet airliner. Concorde, goes into service Network, directed by Sidney Lumet Love To Love You Baby, by Donna Summer 1977 Carter pardons Vietnam draft dodgers Carter appoints nation's first Secretary of Energy Charlie Chaplin and Elvis Presley die Pictures, Artists Space, NYC On Photography, by Susan Sontag Star Wars, directed by George Lucas Hotel California, by Eagles 1978 Iranian Revolution begins First test-tube baby born, England Mass suicide committed by followers of Reverend Jim Jones. Guyana W. Eugene Smith dies Mirrors and Windows: American Photography Since 1960. MoMA. NYC Dallas premieres on TV Halloween, directed by John Carpenter Stayin' Alive, by The Bee Gees 1979 Shah of Iran driven into exile: Ayatollah Khomeini becomes leader, and fifty-two Americans taken hostage by his supporters Egypt and Israel sign Camp David Peace Treaty US backs Contra rebels in war against Sandinistas. Nicaragua Three Mile Island nuclear facility partially melts down Margaret Thatcher elected Prime Minister of England Walkman introduced by Sony Willie Mays inducted into Baseball Hall of Fame Apocalypse Now, directed by Francis Ford Coppola YMCA, by Village People 1980 Ronald Reagan elected President Outbreak of Iran-Iraq War 11

The notion of temporal art that typified Happenings and the so-called "dematerialization" of the art object reached its logical conclusion in Conceptual Art. Shortly after the Pop movement, photography— and a variety of photo-mechanical processes—was used increasingly by such Conceptual artists as Joseph Kosuth, Dennis Oppenheim, Eleanor Antin, Dan Graham, Hans Haacke, Bruce Nauman, Alice Aycock, Jan Dibbets, and Douglas Huebler. "In conceptual art, " as Sol LeWitt defined it, "the idea or concept is the most important aspect of the work. When an artist uses a conceptual form of art. it means that all of the planning and decisions are made beforehand and the execution is a perfunctory affair." 21 Within Conceptual Art the photograph serves as a document, a surrogate for the actual work. With the idea central to Conceptualism, the actual art object was no longer the pri- mary consideration; indeed, for many Conceptual works the actual "piece" was secondary and at times virtually invisible. 22 For Douglas Huebler and many other Conceptual artists of the late 1960s to the early 1970s, the photograph was the per- fect collaborator: art that was "anti-art" could be realized through a means that still had a somewhat tentative associa- tion with "art." The photograph has been a significant part of the ongoing Conceptual works that Huebler began in the late 1960s. In fact, Huebler was one of the first artists of the 1960s to acknowledge the objectivity of the camera and its potential in the production of conceptually based artworks. The text for one of these works reads: "Throughout the remainder of the artist's life he will photographically document, to the extent of his capacity, the existence of everyone alive in order to produce the most authentic and inclusive representation of the human species that may be assembled in that manner." 23 Although Huebler will never achieve his stated aim, the idea, not the execution, is of primary significance. As Huebler has noted, his photographs have no aesthetic value and are not considered "good" photographs in the conventional sense. The camera serves simply as an objective tool to implement the artist's ideas and record the execution of these ideas. For Huebler the idea of the overall classification and presen- tation of "everyone alive" is without a doubt the ultimate col- lection of photographic documentation— an ironic yet calculated twist to the futility of scientific rigor. John Baldessari also utilized the objective potential of the cam- era with artworks that are reminiscent of Ruscha's books and the structured Conceptual works of Huebler. Working with pre- conceived titles and strategies, Baldessari has continually been intrigued with notions of order and chaos. "For us to see things, the mind has to order information. Otherwise things become just a bunch of retinal stimulation. " 24 In such works as The Back of All Trucks Passed While Driving from Los Angeles to Santa Barbara, California. Sunday 20 January 1963 (1963), Alignment Series: Things in My Studio (By Height) (1975), and Color Car Series: All Cars Parked on the West Side of the Street. Between Bay and Bicknell Streets. Santa Monica at 1:15 P.M .. September 1. 1976 (1976), Baldessari goes beyond simply cat- aloguing and classifying aspects of his day-to-day comings and goings. By combining disparate photographs and juxtaposing text with images, Baldessari reveals civilization's "thin veneer over a chaos that may erupt at any moment." 25 With his more recent artworks of the 1980s, such as the two works in Special Collections, Four Types of Chaos/Four Types of Order (1984) and Horizontal Men (with One Luxuriating) (1984), Baldessari departed from taking his own photographs and adopted a strat- egy that became synonymous with Postmodernism— borrowing or appropriating photographs to accommodate his continued interest in bringing order to the world. The seemingly insatiable appetite for photography in the 1970s expresses more than the pleasures of discovering and exploring a relatively neglected art form: it derives much of its fervor from the desire to reaffirm the dis- missal of abstract art, which was one of the messages of the pop taste of the 1960s. —Susan Sontag (1977) 26 Lech Walesa and workers form Solidarity union. Poland Dozens of nations boycott Moscow Summer Olympics Gold rush in Amazon jungle. Brazil Jean-Paul Sartre dies and John Lennon shot dead First consumer Camcorder intro- duced by Sony Graffiti becomes recognized as an "art" form Cable News Network (CNN) debuts on cable TV The Executioner's Song, by Norman Mailer The Elephant Man. directed by David Lynch 1981 Researchers identify AIDS Iranian hostage crisis ends Egypt's president. Anwar Sadat, assassinated Reagan shot and wounded in assassination attempt Sandra Day O'Connor becomes first female Supreme Court justice First reusable spacecraft, space shuttle Columbia Personal computer marketed by IBM MTV debuts on cable TV A Confederacy of Dunces, by John Kennedy Toole Raiders of the Lost Ark. directed by Steven Spielberg 1982 Falkland War Israel invades Lebanon Break up of AT&T Tylenol scare First artificial heart transplant. Jarvik 7. in Utah Image Scavengers: Photography. ICA. University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia Disk camera and fifteen picture film disk introduced by Kodak USA Today newspaper launched Rabbit is Rich, by John Updike E.T .. The Extraterrestrial, directed by Steven Spielberg Ebony and Ivory, by Paul McCartney and Stevie Wonder 1983 US invades Grenada Philippine opposition leader Benigno Aquino assassinated Challenger astronaut Sally K. Ride becomes America's first women in space Bill Brandt and Lisette Model die Martin Luther King Day becomes a national holiday The Color Purple, by Alice Walker The Big Chill, directed by Lawrence Kasdan Thriller, by Michael Jackson breaks 12

Unlike the 1960s, with its distinct art movements— Pop, Minimal, Conceptual, Fluxus, Earthworks —the 1970s on the other hand was a time of pluralism; a time of no specific or dominant artistic trend. The 1970s also saw the Watergate break-in, the resignation of a president, the end of U.S . involvement in the Vietnam War, CB radios, disco, and happy- face buttons, along with widespread emergence of such politi- cal movements as the Women's Movement, Gay Pride, and Black Power. Throughout the country in the 1960s and 1970s photography programs were instituted and expanded at col- leges and universities; museums and alternative spaces devoted exclusively to photography were opening in large and small cities; books and magazines concerning photography were being published by the dozens. As a result of this ongoing exploration of approaches to art- making and the departure from the limitations of working with specific mediums such as painting or sculpture, the photo- graph, as Susan Sontag has noted, and its wholesale adop- tion by artists in a variety of forms, characterized much of the disparate artistic activity of this decade. During this time artists like Dennis Adams, Christian Boltanski, Sarah Charlesworth, Louise Lawler, and Annette Messager increas- ingly began to use the photograph as a part of their multi- faceted artistic explorations. Their artworks in the 1980s would later evolve and depart even further from the traditional notion of the masterpiece with installations — room -size orchestrations of photographs and other materials (Boltanski); with bus shelters as urban art (Adams); with text, sculptural elements, clothes, dolls, twine, etc. (Messager); or with the straightforward photographic documentations that commented on the role of art in culture and the commodification of the art object (Lawler). These were artworks that not only utilized mul- tiple images but extended the use of the photograph into an expanded arena. The appropriation of images, initiated by the Pop artists, began to resurface in much of the artwork of the 1970s and 1980s. Pop art's interest in vernacular imagery, Conceptual Art's inventory systems or games, and Minimalism's harsh industrial edge were evident in the new artworks and accom- panying critical discourse of Postmodernism. The Postmodern generation of artists grew up in the 1950s and 1960s, and was the first generation to be inundated by the flood of images and information from both print and electronic media and exposed to the dramatic artistic transformations that began with Pop art. They witnessed the formation of the con- cept of collective memory, as the Hollywood movie still, the advertising image, the front-page photograph, and, of course, the unblinking emissions of television became engraved on the public consciousness. Simply put, the Postmodern artist believes that the world is overrun with images of all types — printed, photocopied, televised, recorded, filmed —to the point that the concept of originality is no longer possible. As Douglas Crimp, editor of October magazine described in 1980: "A group of young artists working with photography have addressed photography's claims to originality, showing those claims for the fictions they are, showing photography to be always representation, always-already-seen. Their images are purloined, confiscated, appropriated, stolen." - 7 Postmodernism 's scavenging of images from other sources also has its roots in the ready-mades of Duchamp. The poten- tial and predicament of mass image reproduction were the ful- fillment of what Walter Benjamin prophesied fifty years earlier—the farewell to the authentic artwork. His essay was significant to much of the critical discourse of the Postmodern period, and photography, the most accessible form of mechanical reproduction, with its capacity to be effortlessly and infinitely reproduced, was central to much of the Postmodern dilemma. The properties of photographic imagery which have made it a privileged medium in postmodern art are precisely those which for generations art photographers have been concerned to disavow. —Abigail Solomon-Godeau (1984)- " all sales records 1984 Indira Gandhi assassinated Bernhard Goetz shoots four black youths on NYC subway Leak at Union Carbide plant kills more than 2,000 in Bhopal. India Ansel Adams. BrassaT. and Garry Winogrand die Blam! The Explosion of Pop, Minimalism, and Performance. 1958-64. Whitney Museum of American Art. NYC First electronic still camera introduced by Canon McDonald's sells 50 billionth hamburger The Unbearable Lightness of Being, by Milan Kundera Like A Virgin, by Madonna 1985 Mikail Gorbachev becomes General Secretary of USSR Scientists discover hole in ozone layer 1912 Titanic wreckage discovered AT&T building completed, by Philip Johnson with John Bergee, NYC Live Aid reaches worldwide audience of 1.5 billion Pnzzi's Honor, directed by John Huston We Are the World, by USA for Africa 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Ukraine US launches air strike against Libya Challenger explodes. NASA sus- pends shuttle program Ferdinand Marcos flees Philippines and seeks asylum in Hawaii The Real Big Picture, Queens Museum. Flushing. NY Lonesome Dove, by Larry McMurtry Blue Velvet, directed by David Lynch 1987 Gorbachev-Reagan summit. Washington, DC Stock market plunges 508 points Intifadah begins in Israel; riots continue into 1992 NYC's garbage barge rejected by several states and three foreign countries Andy Warhol dies Photography and Art: Interactions Since 1946. Los Angeles County Museum of Art A Summons to Memphis, by Peter Taylor Fatal Attraction, directed by Adrian Lyne 13

A more recent version of the Duchampian ready-made is also seen with the image appropriation in many artworks in Special Collections, including Rick Hock's use of disparate magazine, book, or TV images, Richard Prince's magazine appropriations, Mitchell Syrop's re-photographed high-school yearbook portraits, Dennis Adams's found images of Patricia Hearst, Christian Boltanski's re-photographed portraits of the Mickey Mouse Club members, and Andy Warhol's usage of images from mass media. These artworks address socio-politi cal issues from the time of innocence in the 1950s to the age of terrorism of the 1970s, and the overwhelming crush of information and instant this or that typified by our contempo- rary society. Richard Prince's photo-based, media derived appropriations were among the first Postmodern works of the 1970s. Nevertheless, one of the major tenets of Postmodernism—the adoption of popular culture and the unaltered use of the mass-media image—can be traced to Pop art, namely Andy Warhol and Robert Rauschenberg. Prince's "gangs" — photographic works made up of images drawn from magazines — combine everything from bikers and their girlfriends to bitches and bas- tards to criminals and celebrities to palm trees and decals. Prince's large-scale works differ from Warhol's grids in that they do not only repeat the same image. Nevertheless, Prince's "gangs," which he began in the early 1980s, are rem- iniscent of Warhol's paintings not only in format but also in his choice of images, although Prince's selection in some cases is associated with a less desirable, darker side of American culture. While Warhol's artworks of car crashes, sui- cide victims, and the electric chair were intended to shock and to be "art" that didn't look like "art," Prince's inclusion of images drawn from motorcycle, hot-rod, or surfing magazines addresses the pervasiveness of media imagery and presents what amounts to a "cataloguing of cultural image patterns. " 29 spe'cial collec'tion. a collection of materials segregated from a general library collection according to form, sub- ject, age, condition, rarity, source, or value. 30 T Arents Tobacco Collection and Arents Collection of Books in Parts, New York Public Library he most formidable and extensive cataloguing of culture is seen within galleries and store rooms of most museums. By definition, a museum is a site or space that has been des- ignated for the collection, conservation, study and the consci- entious presentation of objects in historical context. Within the library or museum the desig- nated "special collections" are even more specific than the overall inventory or collection. The desire of society to preserve its cultural heritage, interestingly, is closely linked to the use of the camera in our culture at large. The photograph reassures us that memories will not be forgot- ten, that fleeting events will be captured, that faces will appear forever youthful, and that the pure and simple collection of informa- tion and raw data will happen almost effortlessly. This almost religious collecting and pre- serving of masses of images is clearly evident not only in the image appropriations where the artist hunts through magazines or file drawers for a specific image, but also in the quest on the streets or across the countryside for this subject or that object. Today, the debate over photography's legitimacy as an art form—which began shortly after the invention of photography and well before Walter Benjamin's assertion in his essay The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction— \s mean- Faith, by George Michael 1988 George Bush elected President US-USSR Arms Reduction Treaty goes into effect NASA announces the greenhouse effect Utopia Post Utopia: Configuration of Nature and Culture in Recent Sculpture and Photography. ICA . Boston Last Playboy Club closes, Lansing, Ml The Satanic Verses, by Salman Rushdie Who Framed Roger Rabbit 7 . directed by Robert Zemeckis Don 't Worry. Be Happy, by Bobby McFerrin 1989 Berlin Wall torn down Political reform in Eastern Europe Tiananmen Square massacre US invades Panama and General Manuel Noriega escapes Exxon Valdez oil spill. Prince William Sound. AK Earthquake hits northern California, highway collapses One-hundred-and-fiftieth anniver- sary of photography Robert Mapplethorpe: The Perfect Moment, cancelled at The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington. DC Andy Warhol: A Retrospective MoMA. NYC A Forest of Signs: Art in the Crisis of Representation. MoCA, Los Angeles Mazda Miata introduced First broadcast of high-definition television (HDTV). Japan Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles cartoon series premieres on TV Breathing Lessons, by Anne Tyler Do The Right Thing, directed by Spike Lee Girl You Know It's True, by Milli Vanilli 1990 Charter of Pans officially ends the "cold war" Germany is reunited Iraq invades Kuwait Nelson Mandela released from prison Lech Walesa becomes president of Poland Vaclav Havel elected president of Czechoslovakia Manuel Noriega surrenders to US officials High & Low: Modern Art and Popular Culture. MoMA. NYC A Chorus Line. Broadway's longest running play closes 14

ingless. With the notion of the undermining of originality and authenticity as initiated by Duchamp, articulated by Benjamin, and capitalized on and catapulted to international visibility via the canvas by Warhol, the photograph has truly become impor- tant, if not central to contemporary art. The rapid emergence of alternative modes of artistic expres- sion from traditional forms such as painting and sculpture, and the simultaneous departure from the easel and at times the studio by many artists in the past three decades, have meant increased usage of the photograph by artists and a phenomenal acceptance of photography as a fine art through- out our culture. With the appearence of new artistic forms over the last thirty years, ranging from the wholesale scaveng- ing of photographic images from the vernacular and mass media, to the actual compulsive accumulation of numerous (and at times a seemingly endless number of) photographs that are then ordered in works of art, the notion of the single "authentic" artwork has been radically transformed. Anthropologists have explained that the urge to give order is inherent in human nature. It could be surmised that in a cul- ture that is overrun with images to a point that their informa- tional and utilitarian value becomes not only a conditioned blur but something more akin to a constant visual hum, an artist's impulse to order this visual overload is not only logi- cal, it is inevitable. The artists in Special Collections have found the photographic medium to be the precise tool for their own specific ordering strategies. Remembering that the cam- era is a machine and that photography is essentially a sci- ence, it becomes clear that the photographic process is perfectly suited for this artistic collecting, classifying, archiv- ing, and ordering. Indeed, no other form could have triggered the change in the art world in the ways that the photograph has in the last thirty years. — Charles Stainback Notes Ellery Leonard (New fork I P Dutti 1. Lucretius, On [he Ordei ol Things trans w p82 2. YogiBerid in Episode Report on the Accident Inside My Skull, by Em n Schuster, 1963), p 54 3 Walter Benjamin. "The Work ot Arl in the Age ol Mm ham. ,-il Repruiiin tic.n " in Illuminations trans. Harry Zohn (New York Sr hock en Books l'Mvu. p A Ril hard Pril > use ol the term 'Rings' lo rlesi oOe his photographic works in I photographic oi the printing trade largon The term "ganging-up"' or gong punting . : - i;i /Chen numerous photographs are printed in a "gang" on one large sheet. Typically, however, after the images are printed they die cut clown to smaller sizes and not left on the single sheel 5 John Copldiis "Cone eirnng Various Sinai Fires Edward Rusc.hu Discusses His Perplexing Publ Artforum 3, 5 (February 1965). p. 25. 6 Benjamin, The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. " p 223 7 "Pop Art— Cult of the Commonplace," Time. May 3, 1963, p. 72 . 8. Pat Hackett and Andy Warhol, POPism: The Warhol 60s (New York: Harcourt, Brace. Jovanovich, r 18 9. Owen Smith, "Art, Lite and the Fluxus Attitude,' in Susan Hapgood and Cornell,. Lauf eels riuxAllituilcs (Ghent, Belgium: Linschoot uitgervers, 1991). p . 58 10 Harold Rosenberg, "Evidences," introduction to Aaron Siskind, Photographs (New York Grove Press 1959), [Also published in Art News. September 1959, "The Camera and Action Painting."] 11. John Coplans. "American Painting and Pop Art," in Pop Art USA (Oakland, California: Oakland Museum. 19631, p 14 12. Benjamin H.D . Buchloch. "Conceptual Art 1962-1969: From the Aesthetic of Administration to the Critique of Institution." October (Winter 1990), p. 122 . [An earlier version of this essay was published in L'ait con ceptuel: one perspective (Paris: Musee d'ai t modeine cie la Ville de Pans. 1989). [ 13Ibid.p122 14. Rosalind Krauss, "The Originality of the Avant-Garde: A Postmodernist Repetition," in Brian Wallis. ed.. Art After Modernism: Rethinking Representation (New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art. 1984). p. 21. 15 Beaumont Newhall, The History of Photography from 1839 to Present Day (New York: The Museum of Modern Art in collaboration with George Eastman House. Rochestei, New Yoik, dist Doubi. Garden City, New Jersey, 1964). p. 201 16. Nathan Lyons, The Persistence of Vision (New York Horizon Press in collaboration with the George Eastman House. Rochester, New York, 1967). p . 5 17. Andy Grundberg, "Breaking the Mold" Experiments in Technique and Process." in Andy Grundberg and Kathleen McCarthy Gauss, eds., Photography and Art Interactions Since 1945 (New York: Museum of Modern Art. Fort Lauderdale: Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Abbeville Press. Publishers. 1987), p 107 18. "Dematenalism" is a term that first came into prominence in the mid-1960s to describe die shift away from the precious "art object" to forms that were much less regimented or limiting than painting and sc uipture Lucy Lippard chronicles this tenet in Six years The demalenalization ot the art object from 1966 to 1972 (New York: Praeger Publishers. 1973). 19. Lawrence Alloway. "Allan Kaprow, Two Views." in Topics in American Art Since 1945 (New York. WW Norton & Company. Inc., 1975). p 199 20. Joseph Kosuth. "Art After Philosophy." Studio International 178. 915 (October 1969). p . 135 . 21 Sol LeWitt. "Paragraphs on Conceptual Art." Artforum 5. 10 (Summer 1967). p . 80. 22. Airshow. 1967. by Terry Atkinson and Michael Baldwin A conceptual work thai declared one squaie mile of air to be art. 23. Douglas Huebler, text that accompanies an ongoing series of works. See Variable Piece no. 70 tin Process! Global 598. 1975, p 31 24. John Baldessari, quoted in Coosjie van Bruggen, "Interlude: Between Questions and Answers," in John Baldessan (New York: Rizzoli International Publications. 1990), p. 38 25 Coosjie van Bruggen. "The Art of Misleading Interpretation. " in John Baldessan (New York: Rizzoli International Publications. 1990). p . 216 26. Susan Sontag. "Photographic Evangels. " in On Photography {New York: Farrar. Strauss and Giroux. 1977), p 130 27. Douglas Crimp. "Photographic Activity of Postmodernism," October 15 (Winter 1980), p. 98. 28. Abigail Solomon-Godeau. "Photography After Art Photography." in Brian Wallis. ed.. Art After Modernism Rethinking Representation (New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art. 19841 . p 76. 29 Jeffrey Riam, "An Interview with Richard Prince." Art in America (March 1987), p. 87 . 30. Random House Dictionary of the English Language, second edition/unabridged (New York: Random House. 1987). p 1831 Pretty Woman, directed by Garry Marshall Please Hammer Don't Hurt 'Em, by MC Hammer 1991 Persian Gulf War Gorbachev resigns as leader of Soviet Union Soviet Union is dissolved with for- mation of Commonwealth of Independent States Four white policemen are video- taped beating black motorist Rodney King, Los Angeles Anita Hill/Clarence Thomas hearings European Community nations sign unity treaty, Maastricht, Netherlands Yugoslavia republics — Croatia and Slovenia— declare independence Magic Johnson announces he is HIV positive Frank Capra. Miles Davis. Edwin Land, Robert Motherwell, and Dr. Seuss die JFK, directed by Oliver Stone Smells Like Teen Spirit, by Nirvana 1992 Policemen acquitted for beating Rodney King; riots erupt in Los Angeles Earth Summit held in Brazil Civil War in El Salvador ends R.H. Macy & Co. files for bankruptcy Johnny Carson retires from The Tonight Show The Player, directed by Robert Altman Bill Clinton elected President Timeline Bibliography: Brownstone. David and Irene Franck. 20M> Century Culture. A Dictionary of the Arts and Literature of Our Time New York: Prentice Hall. 1991. Dickson, Paul Timelines: Day by Day and Trend by Trend from the Dawn of the Atomic Age to the Gulf War. Addison- Wesley Publishing Company. Inc.. 1991. Hitchings. Thomas E.. editor in chief- Facts on File Yearbook. 1989. 1990 1992. New York: Facts on File. International Museum of Photography at istman House. Rochester. New York. CDROM timeline Livingstone. Marco Pop Art- An International Perspective. New York Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. 1992 Stich. Sidra. Made in USA: An Americanization in Modern Art The 50s & 60s. London: University of California Press. 1987. Turner, Peter Timeline, 1985 exhibition, American Images. Photography 1945^1980. Barbican Art Gallery, London. England. Weaver. Mike The Art of Photography 18391989. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1989. (The Royal Academy of Arts. London) Wetterau. Bruce The New York Public Library Book of Chronologies New York Prentice Hall Press. 1990. 15

/ scrutinized Andy's photograph collection. . . The photos were an odd assortment of car crashes, people being tortured, candid and posed movie stars, and nature lovers. I realized that the photos were the actual subject matter Andy reproduced in his silk-screens . From these photos. Andy was taking what he wanted stylistically from the media and from commercial art, elaborating and commenting on a technique and vision that was to begin with second-hand. He was a Social Realist in reverse; he was satirizing the methods of commercial art as well as the American Scene. But instead of satirizing the products themselves, he had satirized the "artful" way they were presented. - Gerald Malanga Excerpt from "A Conversation with Andy Warhol." by Gerald Malanga. The Print Collector's Newsletter I, 6 . January - February 1971, p. 125. Andy Warhol Crowd, 1963 16

'.

Robert Watts Chest of Moles, (Portrait of Pamela), 1965-85 18

Ray Metzker Telephone Booth, 1966 (detail) 20

Above all, the photographs I use are not "arty" in any sense of the word. I think photography is dead as a fine art: its only place is in the commercial world, for technical or information purposes. I don 't mean cinema photography, but still photogra- phy, that is, limited edition, individual, hand-processed photos. Mine are simply repro- ductions of photos. Thus, it is not a book to house a collection of art photographs - they are technical data like industrial photography. To me. they are nothing more than snapshots. - Edward Ruscha Excerpt from the interview. "Concerning 'Various Small Fires'- Edward Ruscha Discusses His Perplexing Publications." by John Coplans. Artforum III. 5, February 1965. p. 25 . Edward Ruscha Every Building on the Sunset Strip, 1966 27!

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. . . Objects of every sort are materials for the new art: paint, chairs, food, electric and neon lights, smoke, water, old socks, a dog, movies, a thousand other things which will be discovered by the present generation of artists. Not only will these bold creators show us. as if for the first time, the world we have always had about us. but ignored, but they will disclose entirely unheard of happenings and events, found in garbage cans, police files, hotel lobbies, seen in store windows and on the streets, and sensed in dreams and horrible accidents. An odor of crushed strawber- ries, a letter from a friend or a billboard selling Draino; three taps on the front door, a scratch, a sigh or a voice lectur- ing endlessly, a blinding stac- cato flash, a bowler hat - all will become materials for this new concrete art. The young artist of today need no longer say "/ am a painter" or "a poet " or "a dancer. " He is simply an "artist. " All of life will be open to him. He will discover out of ordinary things the mean- ing of ordinariness. He will not try to make them extraordinary. Only their real meaning will be stated. But out of nothing he will devise the extraordinary and then maybe nothingness as well. People will be delighted or horrified, critics will be confused or amused, but these, I am sure, will be the alchemies. - Allan Kaprow DAYS OFF A CAL ^DAIf Commissioned by The Junior Council of The Museum of Modern Art. New York. 1970 Excerpt of "The Legacy of Jackson Pollock," by Allan Kaprow. ARTnews LVII. 6 . October 1958, pp. 56 -7 . Allan Kaprow Days Off: A Calendar of Happenings. 1970 24

RECORD II APRIL 3 BREAKING BIG ROCKS PHOTOGRAPHING THEM

Bernd & Hilla Becher Typology Water towers, 1972 26

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/ was eleven years old in 1955 and I resembled these sixty-two children, whose photos were pictured in that year's Mickey Mouse Club magazine. They had each sent in the picture that, according to their opinion, represented them best: smiling and well-groomed or with their favorite toy or animal. They had the same desires and the same interests that I did. Today they must all be about my age, but I can ' t learn what has become of them. The picture that remains of them does not correspond anymore with reality, and all these children 's faces have disappeared; on the second page of the Mickey Mouse Club magazine, other similar and interchangeable faces have replaced them. Uncle Leon, the president of the club, a mythic figure, continues to write his letters to the "dear, little readers " and the children send their photos in again. Everything happens as if the recollections that I see did not lie in my memory, but in the present which surrounds me. -Christian Boltanski From the artist's statement in the exhibition. "Monumenta," Stadtische Kunsthalle. Dusseldorf. 1973. Christian Boltanski The 62 members of the Mickey Mouse Club in 1955, 1972 28

The world is full of objects, more or less interesting: I do not wish to add any more. I prefer, simply, to state the existence of things in terms of time and/or place. More specifically, the work concerns itself with things whose inter-relationship is beyond direct perceptual experience. Because the work is beyond direct perceptual experience, awareness of the work depends on a system of documentation. This documentation takes the form of photographs, maps, drawings and descriptive language. - Douglas Huebler From the catalog statement accom- panying the exhibition, "January 5 - 31, 1971," Seth Siegelaub, New York City. Douglas Huebler Variable Piece no. 70 (In Process) Global 598. 1975 30

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Sentences on Conceptual Art 1. Conceptual Artists are mystics rather than rationalists. They leap to conclusions that logic cannot reach. 2. Rational judgements repeat rational judgements. 3. Illogical judgements lead to new experience. 4. Formal Art is essentially rational. 5. Irrational thoughts should be followed absolutely and logically. 6. If the artist changes his mind midway through the execution of the piece he compromises the result and repeats past results. 7. The artist's will is secondary to the process he initiates from idea to completion. His wilful- ness may only be ego. 8. When words such as painting and sculpture are used, they connote a whole tradition and imply a consequent acceptance of this tradition, thus placing lim- itations on the artist who would be reluctant to make art that goes beyond the limitations. 9. The concept and idea are different. The former implies a general direction while the latter are the components. Ideas implement the concept. 10. Ideas alone can be works of art; they are in a chain of devel- opment that may eventually find some form. All ideas need not be made physical. - Sol LeWitt Excerpt of "Sentences on Conceptual Art." by Sol LeWitt. 0 -9 no. 5. January 1969. pp. 3-5. Sol LeWitt Photogrids, 1977 (detail) 32

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Judy Fiskin Geometric Facades from the Dingbat series, 1983 38

John Baldessari 4 Types of Chaos/4 Types of Order. 1984 40

Robert Heinecken T.V . Newswomen, 1986 42

Neil Winokur Cindy Sherman: Totem, 1986 44

Garry Fabian Miller Honesty. The fertile months, the greening, the growing, the dying, the seeded hope, Lowfield Farms, Lincolnshire, May - September, 1985 (detail) 46

Rick Hock Codex (Pee Wee), 1988 48

Sarah Charlesworth Subtle Body, 1989 50

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Prices of commercial flowers are influenced by seasonal avail- ability, packaging or transporta- tion requirements, and breeding factors. Higher on the pyramid are costlier flowers; species with shorter growing seasons, fragile blossoms needing spe- cial protective packaging, imports from overseas, or flow- ers from plants requiring much cultivation but yielding small harvests. Lower-ranked are the less expensive flowers: domes- tic , hardy, high-yield plants with long growing seasons. - Susan Eder Susan Eder Flower Value Scale (Price Pyramid). 1989 52

It is true that, particularly since My Wishes (1988) I have turned back again to my early enthusi- asms. I am again doing hun- dreds of coloured drawings similar to those in Collections, but I use them for superimposi- tions, I pile them up; there are frames covering other frames... The same hand, nose or profile is accumulated and multiplied, until the negative is almost worn out. This again corre- sponds to the notion of an endless collection based on one sixtieth of a second. . . Nowadays, "proper" photo- graphers go in for single prints, they mimic painters. What inter- ests me in photography is not the texture, the quality of the surface, or any strictly photo- graphic quality. It is the amazing potential of being able to repeat one and the same image an infinite number of times. In that sense, we have all learned from Warhol. - Annette Messager Excerpt of the interview, "Annette Messager or the Taxidermy of Desire," by Bernard Marcade from the exhibi- tion catalog, "Annette Messager: comedie tragedie 1971-1989," Musee de Grenoble, France, 1989, pp. 173-174. Annette Messager Mes Voeux (My Wishes), 1989-90 54

Robbert Flick One Thousand Signs - along Lincoln Blvd. looking East. Culver to Wilshire to Culver, (7:30am - 5:15pm), 1990 56

Louise Lawler Collage/Cartoon, 1990 58

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/ was in camera. A point of law. Something to do with privacy. I was working at Time-Life. A large building. A large camera. Time-Life, a large name. Lip-ser - vice and animated existence. Things moving. I was moving. Away from anything that I made. I moved to Time-Life. Around 1976. I had turned part of a storeroom where I worked into a kind of lunchtime studio. I started photographing the mag- azines Time-Life published. I thought of the camera as an electronic scissor. I worked in a department called "tear sheets. " Apart from anyone. With nothing else besides. There was really nothing to mention. I was alone for eight to twelve hours a day. Tearing up magazines. Page by page. I was supposed to tear out all the editorial pages. Those were called "hard copies. " We passed along these copies to the people who wrote the "copy. " To the authors. I was left with the rest of the maga- zine. The advertisements. The authorless pages. - Richard Prince Excerpt of an interview with Richard Prince by Larry Clark in the exhibition catalogue. "Richard Prince." Whitney Museum of American Art. New York City. 1992 . p. 129. Richard Prince Untitled (Palms and Decals). 1990 60

Mitchell Syrop RFG Constellation #6, 1991-92 62

Alan Rath One O'clock, 1990 I 64

EXH TION CHECKLIST Most of the photographs reproduced in this catalogue have been provided by the artists or by the collections indicated on the exhibition checklist. We thank them for their generosity and would like to acknowledge the following for their contributions as well: Blum Helman Gallery, New York City, p. 7; Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art. Kansas City, Missouri (Gift of the Guild of the Friends of Art and a group of friends of the Gallery), p. 8: The Lane Collection — Photo, Courtesy. Museum of Fine Arts. Boston, p. 9; Estate of Robert Smithson. courtesy John Weber Gallery. New York City. p. 11; New York Public Library, p. 14: The Andy Warhol Foundation, p. 17; David Lubarsky. pp. 22, 23. 29. 31 . 33 . 45; William Nettles for The Capital Group Foundation, p. 41; David Spear, p. 49; Galerie Crousel-Robelin Bama. Paris, p. 55 . DENNIS ADAMS Patricia Hearst -AtoZ. 1979 -89 26 two-color silkscreen prints. 20 x 16 in. ea., 80 x 128 in. overall Courtesy Kent Gallery. Inc., New York City JOHN BALDESSARI The Telephone Book (with Pearls), 1988 Offset lithographic book, 68 pp.. 8%x5%in. Collection International Center of Photography. New York City 4 Types of Chaos/4 Types of Order, 1984 8 gelatin silver prints with pencil, 74%x59 l A in. Collection The Capital Group Foundation, Los Angeles Horizontal Men (with One Luxuriating), 1984 Gelatin silver prints, 61 Vt x 49 l A in. Private Collection, courtesy Sonnabend Gallery, New York City Brutus Killed Caesar, 1976 Published by The Emily H. Davis Art Gallery of The University of Akron, Ohio in cooperation with Sonnabend Gallery, New York City Offset lithographic book, 72 pp. , 3%x10%in. Collection Visual Studies Workshop. Rochester, New York Four Events and Reactions, 1975 Published on the occasion of the exhibition held at the Stedehjk Museum, Amsterdam, November 21, 1975 - January 4, 1976 Offset lithographic book, 24 pp. , 5x7in. Collection Franklin Furnace Archive, New York City Throwing a Ball Once to Get Three Melodies and Fifteen Chords, 1973 Offset lithographic book, 32 pp.. 8x 10 in. Collection International Center of Photography, New York City BERND & HIUA BECHER Typology Watertowers, 1972 9 gelatin silver prints, 16 x 12 in. ea ., 48 x 36 in. overall Sonnabend Collection, New York City Typology Watertowers, 1972 9 gelatin silver prints, 16 x 12 in. ea ., 48 x 36 in. overall Sonnabend Collection, New York City CHRISTIAN BOLTANSKI Inventory of objects belonging to a young woman of Charleston, 1991 Published by Spoleto Festival U.S.A. in conjunction with the exhibition, "Places With a Past: New Site- Specific Art in Charleston," May 24 - August 4, 1991 Offset lithographic book, 50 pp., 8Kx5'/in. Collection International Center of Photography. New York City Inventaire des objets ayant appartenu a une femme de Bois- Colombes, (Inventory of objects belonging to a woman of Bois- Colombes), 1974 Published in conjuntion with the exhibition, "Boltanski - Monory," October 15 - December 2, 1974. Centre national d'art contemporain, Pans Offset lithographic book, 44 pp., 8'/,x5/in. Collection International Center of Photography, New York City The 62 members of the Mickey Mouse Club in 1955, 1972 62 gelatin silver prints, 12x8%in. ea., 72 x87 'A in. overall Sonnabend Collection, New York City SARAH CHARLESWORTH Subtle Body, 1989 Laminated Cibachrome print, 78x57in. Courtesy the artist and Jay Gomey Modern Art, New York City ROBBERT FLICK SUSAN EDER Fish Value Scale (Price Pyramid). 1991 Ektacolor print, 36 x 48 in. Courtesy Jones Troyer Fitzpatnck Gallery, Washington, D.C. Flower Value Scale (Price Pyramid), L989 Ektacolor print. 40 x 32 in. Courtesy Jones Troyer Fitzpatrick Gallery, Washington. D .C. JUDY FISKIN Elaboration of a Square, from the Dingbat series, 1983 4 gelatin silver prints, 10 x 8 in. ea . 40 x 8 in. overall Courtesy the artist Geometric Facades, from the Dingbat series, 1983 8 gelatin silver prints, 10 x 8 in. ea ., 22 x 40 in. overall Courtesy the artist Peaked Roofs, from the Dingbat series, 1983 4 gelatin silver prints, 10 x 8 in. ea ., 10 x 34 in. overall Courtesy the artist One Thousand Signs - along Lincoln Blvd. looking East. Culver to Wilshire to Culver, (7:30am-5:15pm), 1990 Cibachrome print, 36 x 28 in. Courtesy the artist and Turner/Krull Gallery, Los Angeles Silver Saddle Ranch, 1982 Gelatin silver print, 30 x 36 in. Courtesy the artist and Turner/Krull Gallery, Los Angeles ROBERT HEINECKEN TV. Newswomen, 1986 12 Cibachrome prints, 78 x 38 in. overall Collection Continental Insurance, courtesy Douglas Drake Gallery, New York City 1984: A Case Study in Finding an Appropriate TV Newswoman (A CBS Docudrama in Words and Pictures), 1985 Offset lithographic book. 16 pp. , 11%x9in. Collection International Center of Photography, New York City RICK HOCK Codex (Commerce), 1989 Polaroid transfers, 68 x 53 in. Courtesy the artist Codex (Pee Wee), 1988 Poloroid transfers, 22 x 36 in. Courtesy the artist DOUGLAS HUEBIER Variable Piece no. 70 (In Process) Global 598, 1975 Diptych with gelatin silver prints and text, left panel: 37 x 36 % in.; right panel: 37 x 37 in. Courtesy Holly Solomon Gallery, New York City Variable Piece no. 70 (In Process) Global 81, 1973 Acrylic on paper, gelatin silver prints andtext,48/.x45/.in. Courtesy Holly Solomon Gallery, New York City 67

EXHIB TION CHECKLIST Duration Piece #8 Global (Part I & Part II). 1970-73 Offset lithographic book, 50 pp. , 16x11 Collection Franklin Furnace Archive. New York City Location Piece #2, July 1969 Offset lithographic book in envelope. 19pp..7x7in. Collection International Center of Photography. New York City ALLAN KAPROW Days Off: A Calendar of Happenings. 1970 Commissioned by the Junior Council of The Museum of Modern Art, New York Offset lithography, 15 % x 10 % in. Collection International Center of Photography and courtesy Barbara Moore/Bound & Unbound. New York City Routine. 1975 Offset lithographic book, 4 pp. , 11x8*in. Collection Franklin Furnace Archive, New York City 10UISE 1AWIER Collage/Cartoon, 1990 Cibachrome print triptych, each panel 17 *x24in.. 17 Ya x 72 in. overall Courtesy Metro Pictures, New York City $01 IEWITT Brick Wall. 1977 Offset lithographic book, 32 pp. , 10%x8%in. Collection International Center of Photography, New York City Photogrids, 1977 9 Ektacolor prints from the series, 15%x23%in. ea. Collection the New Britain Museum of American Art, Connecticut From Monteluco to Spoleto. December 1976 Offset lithographic book, 38 pp. , 10x10in. Collection International Center of Photography, New York City ARNAUDMAGGS 48 Views Series. 1981-83 162 gelatin silver prints, 16 x 20 in. ea.. 162 x 372 in. overal Courtesy the artist ANNETTE MERGER Mes Voeux (My Wishes). 1989 -90 Gelatin silver prints, texts and string, 49 -A in. radius Anne & William J. Hokin Collection RAY METZKER Telephone Booth. 1966 Gelatin silver print. 30 x 22 in. Courtesy Laurence Miller Gallery. New York City GARRY FABIAN MILLER Co-existence Human Air Parasite Sun Vein Leaf Tree Breath Fragile. Torn sycamores. Pusto Wood, the Trent Valley, Nottinghamshire, Spring 1986 - Summer 1988 Cibachrome print. 48 x 72 in. Courtesy the artist Honesty. The fertile months, the greening, the growing, the dying, the seeded hope. Lowfield Farms, Lincolnshire. May - September. 1985 Cibachrome prints. 5 panels. 53 x 15 in. ea.. 53 x 100 in. overall Courtesy the artist PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN 16 Baseball Players. 1962 Rocky Colavito, Pete Ward, Bob Allison, Ken Boyer, Frank Robinson, Sandy Koufax, Willie Mays. Roger Maris, Al Kaline, Whitey Ford. Jim Gentile, Bill Mazeroski. Ernie Banks, Warren Spahn, Mickey Mantle, Don Drysdale 16 photo-lithographic reproductions with laminated, phonograph recording 63Ax6%in. ea..27x27in. overall Private Collection RICHARD PRINCE Untitled (Palms and Decals). 1990 Ektacolor print. 86 x 46 in. Collection Continental Insurance, courtesy Douglas Drake Gallery. New York City MITCHELL SYROP ALAN RATH tOne Clock. 1990 Aluminum, electronics, cathode ray tubes.27x40x12 in. Collection Carol and David Dorsky EDWARD RUSCHA Babycakes with Weights, 1970 Offset lithographic book, 54 pp. , 7^x6 in . Courtesy Marian Goodman Gallery. New York City Nine Swimming Pools and a Broken Glass, 1968 Offset lithographic book, 64 pp., 7x5Yiin. Collection Visual Studies Workshop, Rochester, New York Every Building on the Sunset Strip. 1966 Offset lithographic, accordion-fold book. 7 %x 291 lA in. Collection International Center of Photography, New York City Some Los Angeles Apartments. 1965 Offset lithographic book, 48 pp.. 7 x 5 * in., third edition. 1970 Collection Visual Studies Workshop, Rochester, New York Various Small Fires and Milk, 1964 Offset lithographic book. 48 pp., 7x5^ in., second edition. 1970 Collection Visual Studies Workshop, Rochester, New York Twenty-Six Gasoline Stations, 1962 Offset lithographic book, 48 pp.. 7 x 5 ^ in., third edition, 1969 Collection Visual Studies Workshop, Rochester. New York RFG Constellation #6. 1991-92 Laser prints, aluminum extrusion and monofilament support structure, 81 x67 in. Courtesy the artist and Rosamund Felsen Gallery. Los Angeles RFG Constellation #3. 1976-92 Laser prints, aluminum extrusion and monofilament support structure. 63x91in. Courtesy the artist and Rosamund Felsen Gallery, Los Angeles ANDY WARHOL Crowd. 1963 Silkscreen ink on canvas. 50 x 36 % in. Courtesy Galerie Bruno Bischofberger. Zurich ROBERT WATTS + Chest of Moles. (Portrait of Pamela). 1965-85 Photo-embedments in plastic, illuminated glass and wood case. 17x13x7%in. Courtesy Larry Miller and Sara Seagull, the Robert Watts Studio Archive. New York City FLUXPOST 1717, 1964 2 stamp sheets (black and blue). 11x8Yin. ea. Courtesy Larry Miller and Sara Seagull, the Robert Watts Studio Archive, New York City YAMFLUG/5 POST 5, 1963 2 stamp sheets (red and green), 10Yx8%in.ea. Courtesy Larry Miller and Sara Seagull, the Robert Watts Studio Archive. New York City NEIL WINOKUR Cindy Sherman: Totem, 1986 5 Cibachrome prints, 20 *x 16 '/in. ea.. 61Yx49Yin. overall James K. Patterson Collection t Not included in traveling exhibition 68

BIOGRAPHIES DENNIS ADAMS Born 1948. Des Moines, Iowa Resides New York City SELECTED SOLO EXHIBITIONS AND PUBLIC WORKS 1992 Galerie Franck & Schulte, Berlin; "Arcadian Blind." Flonadepark. Zoetermeer. Holland (public work) 1991 The Museum of Modern Art, New York City; Orangerie. Englishcher Garten. Munich; "Emancipation," Boston (public work) 1990 Kent Fine Art, New York City; Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C .; "Bus Shelter V & VI." Essen. Germany (public work) 1989 Galerie Meert-Rihoux, Brussels; "Ticket Booth." Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City (public work) 1988 de Appel Foundation. Amsterdam; "Bus Shelter VII," C.W. Post Campus of Long Island University, Brookville, New York (public work); "Public Commands/ Other Voices." Martin Luther King Jr. Metrorail Station. Miami, Florida (public work) 1986 Nature Morte Gallery, New York City: "Bus Shelter I," 14th Street and 3rd Avenue, New York City (public work) 1984 The Kitchen, New York City 1983 "Bus Shelter I," Broadway and 66th Street, New York City (public work) 1978 "Patricia Hearst — A Second Reading," 10 on 8, New York City (public work) 1975 Wright State University, Dayton. Ohio; Carl Solway Gallery, Cincinnati, Ohio 1972 Akron Art Institute, Ohio SELECTED GROUP EXHIBITIONS 1992 "Notes from the Material World: Contemporary Photomontage," John Michael Kohler Arts Center. Sheboygan. Wisconsin; "Pour la suite du Monde," Musee d'Art Contemporam de Montreal 1991 "The Political Arm," John Weber Gallery, New York City; "Power: Its Myths. Icons, & Structures in American Culture, 1961-1991 ." Indianapolis Museum of Art; "Artists of Conscience: 16 Years of Social and Political Commentary," Alternative Museum. New York City 1990 "Insect Politics: Body Horror/Social Order." Hallwalls, Buffalo, New York; "Passages de 1'image," Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou. Paris (traveling exhibition); "The Decade Show: Frameworks of Identity in the 80's." The Studio Museum in Harlem, New York City 1989 "Sequence (Con)Sequence: (Sub)Versions of Photography in the 80s," Edith C. Blum Institute, Bard College, Annandale-on -Hudson, New York; "Not Photography," Meyers/ Bloom Gallery, Santa Monica, California; "Image World: Art and Media Culture," Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City 1988 "Constructions: Between Sculpture and Architecture," Sculpture Center, New York City; "Public Discourse," Real Artways, Hartford. Connecticut 1987 "Spectre of Saturation." Mclntosh/Drysdale Gallery, Washington, D.C .; "Art in the Dark," City Without Walls, Newark, New Jersey 1986 "Uplifted Atmospheres, Borrowed Taste," Hallwalls, Buffalo, New York 1985 "The Artist as Social Designer: Aspects of Urban Art Today," Los Angeles County Museum of Art; "Disinformation: The Manufacture of Consent," Alternative Museum, New York City; "Art on the Beach," Battery Park City Landfill, New York City 1984 "Contemporary Perspectives 1984," Center Gallery, Bucknell University, Lewisberg. Pennsylvania and Sordoni Art Gallery, Wilkes College, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania 1981 "Libres d'artista/Artists' Books," El Centre de Documentacio d'Art Actual, Metronom, Barcelona 1980 "Sound, Space and Performance," Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 1979 "Reality of Illusion," Denver Art Museum, Colorado (traveling exhibition) JOHN BALDESSARI Born 1931, National City, California Resides Santa Monica, California SELECTED SOLO EXHIBITIONS 1991 Donald Young Gallery, Chicago; Galerie Crousel-Robelm Bama, Paris 1990 "John Baldessari," The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles (traveling exhibition); Sonnabend Gallery, New York City 1989 "Ni Por Esas - Not Even So: John Baldessari," Centro de Arte Reina Sofia. Madrid 1988 "John Baldessari: Recent Work," Margo Leavin Gallery, Los Angeles; "John Baldessari: Oeuvres recentes," Galerie Laage-Salomon, Paris; Lisson Gallery, London 1987 Centre National d'Art Contemporain de Grenoble, France; Sonnabend Gallery, New York City 1986 "John Baldessari: Matrix Berkeley 94," University Art Museum, University of California. Berkeley 1984 Sonnabend Gallery, New York City: Galerie Gillespie-Laage- Salomon, Paris 1982 The Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati, Ohio; Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, Texas 1980 "Fugitive Essays," Sonnabend Gallery, New York City 1977 "Matrix," Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford. Connecticut 1975 Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam 1973 Sonnabend Gallery, New York City 1971 Art and Project, Amsterdam 1966 La Jolla Museum of Contemporary Art, California SELECTED GROUP EXHIBITIONS 1991 "Breakthroughs: Avant-Garde Artists in Europe and America, 1950- 1990," Wexner Center for the Arts, The Ohio State University, Columbus; "Devil on the Stairs: Looking Back on the Eighties," Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 1990 "Word as Image: American Art 1960-1990, " Milwaukee Art Museum, Wisconsin (traveling exhibi- tion) 1989 "LA Pop in the Sixties," Newport Harbor Art Museum, Newport Beach, California; "Invention and Continuity in Contemporary Photographs," The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City; "California Photography: Remaking the Make-Believe." The Museum of Modern Art, New York City 1988 "Modes of Address: Language in Art Since 1960," Whitney Museum of American Art Downtown. New York City 1987 "Avant-Garde in the Eighties," Los Angeles County Museum of Art 1985 "1985 Biennial," Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City; "1985 Carnegie International," The Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 1981 "The Museum as Site: Sixteen Artists," Los Angeles County Museum of Art: "Instant Photography," Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam 1980 "Visual Articulation of Idea." Visual Studies Workshop, Rochester, New York 1978 "American Narrative/Story Art: 1967-1977 ," Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, Texas; University Art Museum. University of California. Berkeley 1976 "Rooms." P.S . 1, Long Island City, New York: "Artists Use Photography," Hallwalls, Buffalo, New York 69

BIOGRAPHIES 1974 "Project 74," Cologne. West Germany 1972 "Documenta 5," Museum Fridericianum. Kassel, West Germany 1970 "Art in the Mind." Oberlin College. Ohio: "Information." The Museum of Modern Art. New York City 1969 "Art by Telephone." Museum of Contemporary Art. Chicago BERND ft HIIIA BECHER BERND: Born 1931. Siegen District, Germany Resides Dusseldorf. Germany HILLA: Born 1934. Berlin Resides Dusseldorf. Germany SELECTED SOLO EXHIBITIONS 1992 Daniel Weinberg Gallery, Santa Monica. California 1991 Galerie Max Hetzler. Cologne, Germany: Primo Piano. Rome 1990 Sonnabend Gallery. New York City 1989 "American Buildings and Others," Urbi et Orbi Galerie. Paris 1988 "Hauser." Bei Konrad Fischer. Dusseldorf. West Germany: " Watertowers," Kunstverein Munich; Palais des Beaux Arts. Brussels 1986 Carnegie Mellon Art Gallery, Carnegie Mellon University. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Kamakura Gallery, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 1985 Folkwangmuseum, Essen, West Germany: ARC, Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris 1983 Freedman Gallery, Reading, Pennsylvania: Sonnabend Gallery. New York City 1982 Carol Taylor. Dallas. Texas 1981 Kunstverein. Seigen. West Germany: "Retrospective Exhibition," Stedelijk Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, The Netherlands 1980 Fach Hochschule und Hochschule fur Bildende Kunste, Hamburg. West Germany: Galerie Vega. Liege, Belgium 1979 Galerie Sonnabend. Paris 1977 InK. Crex Collection. Zurich. Switzerland 1975 The Museum of Modern Art. New York City 1974 Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut 1972 International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House. Rochester, New York 1970 Moderna Museet, Stockholm. Sweden 1968 Stedelijk Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven. The Netherlands: Galerie Ruth Nohl. Seigen. West Germany 1967 Kunstakademie. Copenhagen, Denmark 1963 Galerie Ruth Nohl. Seigen. West Germany SELECTED GROUP EXHIBITIONS 1992 "L'esprit de I'industrie." Collection du CAPC. CAPC. Musee d'Art Contemporain. Bordeaux, France: "Photography in Contemporary German Art: 1960 to the Present." Walker Art Center, Minneapolis. Minnesota (traveling exhibition) 1991 "Typologies: Nine Contemporary Photographers," Newport Harbor Art Museum, Newport Beach. California (traveling exhibition) 1990 "Assembled: Works of Art Using Photography as a Construction Element." Museum of Contemporary Art at Wright State University. Dayton, Ohio; "Signs of Life: Process and Materials. 1960 -1990 ." Institute of Contemporary Art. University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia; "Venice Biennale," Italy 1989 "Repetition." Hirschl & Adler Modern, New York City; "Bilderstreit: construction, unity and fragmenta- tion in art since 1960," Ludwig Museum in the Rheinhallen, Cologne, West Germany 1987 "This is Not a Photograph: 20 Years of Large-Scale Photography. 1966-1986. " John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art. Sarasota. Florida 1986 "Bernd & Hilla Becher. Gunther Forg, Reinhard Mucha," Luhring, Augustine & Hodes Gallery, New York City 1984 "Artistic Collaboration in the Twentieth Century." Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Smithsonian Institution. Washington. D.C. 1983 "Big Pictures by Contemporary Photographers," The Museum of Modern Art, New York City 1982 "Visual Cataloguing & Mapping: Photographs, Installations & Artist's Books. " Visual Studies Workshop. Rochester, New York 1980 "Europe 1980," Lyon. France: " Artist and Camera," Arts Council. Great Britain 1977 "Documenta 6. " Museum Fridericianum. Kassel, West Germany: "Internationale Biennale Sao Paulo." Brazil 1975 "New Topographies: Images of a Man-Altered Landscape." International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House. Rochester. New York 1974 "Idea and Image." The Art Institute of Chicago 1972 "Documenta 5," Museum Fridericianum, Kassel, West Germany 1970 "Information," The Museum of Modern Art, New York City CHRISTIAN BOUANSKI Born 1944, Paris Resides Malakoff, France SELECTED SOLO EXHIBITIONS 1992 Gallery Senda. Hiroshima. Japan 1991 "The Dead Swiss." Marian Goodman Gallery. New York City; "Reconstitution," Musee de Grenoble, France 1990 "Reserve," Galerie Elisabeth Kaufmann. Basel, Switzerland; The Institute of Contemporary Art, Nagoya. Japan; "Meurtre," Beaux- Arts Galerij, Brussels 1989 "Archives," Galerie Ghislaine Hussenot, Paris 1988 "Lessons of Darkness." Museum of Contemporary Art. Chicago. The Museum of Contemporary Art. Los Angeles, and The New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York City 1987 "Oeuvres inedites." Galerie Roger Pailhas. Marseille. France; "Monuments." Galerie Chantal Boulanger. Montreal 1986 "Peindre photographier." Galerie des Ponchettes, Musee de Nice. France; "Monuments." Galerie Crousel-Hussenot. Paris; Art Space, Sydney. Australia 1984 "Shadows. " Galerie ' t Venster. Rotterdam, The Netherlands 1982 Sonnabend Gallery. New York City; Nouveau Musee, De Vleeshal. Middelburg. The Netherlands 1980 "Christian Boltanski-composi- tions." Musee des Beaux-Arts, Calais. France 1979 Sonnabend Gallery, New York City 1978 "Compositions photo- graphiques," Galerie Jollenbeck, Cologne, West Germany: P.S . 1. Long Island City, New York 1977 "Stories and Posters. " La Jolla Museum of Contemporary Art, California 1976 "Photographies couleurs- Images modeles," Musee National d'Art Moderne. Centre Georges Pompidou. Paris 1975 Centre d'Art Contemporain. Geneva 1974 "Les Inventaires." Louisiana Museum. Humlebaek, Denmark 1973 "Les Inventaires." Museum of Modern Art. Oxford. England 70

OGRAPH ES 1971 "Essais de reconstitution d'objets ayant appartenu a Christian Boltanski entre 1948-1954," Galerie Sonnabend. Paris SELECTED GROUP EXHIBITIONS 1991 '1991 Carnegie International." The Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania: "Places with a Past: New Site-Specific Art in Charleston," Spoleto Festival U.S.A ., Charleston, South Carolina: "The Anonymous Other." Ansel Adams Center, Friends of Photography, San Francisco 1990 "Stendhal Syndrome: The Cure." Andrea Rosen Gallery, New York City: "Assembled." The University Art Gallery, Wright State University Creative Art Center. Dayton, Ohio 1989 "On the Art of Fixing a Shadow: One Hundred and Fifty Years of Photography," National Gallery of Art, Washington. D.C.. and The Art Institute of Chicago: "L'invention d'un art. " Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre George Pompidou, Paris: "L'art sacre," Beaux-Arts Galenj. Brussels 1988 "Saturne en Europe." Musee des Beaux-Arts, Ancienne Douane, Musee de I'Oeuvre Notre Dame, Strasbourg, France: "Art or Nature." Barbican Art Gallery, London 1987 "Die Gleischzeitigkeit des Anderen," Kunstmuseum. Bern, Switzerland: "Documenta 8," Museum Fridericianum, Kassel. West Germany 1986 "Lumieres: Perception- Projection." Centre International d'Art Contemporain de Montreal 1985 Galerie Crousel-Hussenot, Paris: "Dialog," Moderna Museet. Stockholm, Sweden 1983 "Kunst mit Fotografie." Nationalgalerie. Berlin 1981 "Westkunst," Museen der Stadt Kdln, Cologne, West Germany 1979 "Text-Foto-Geschichten. Story Art/Narrative Art," Bonner Kunstverein, Bonn, West Germany 1978 "Couples," PS. 1, Long Island City, New York 1977 "Documenta 6," Museum Fridericianum, Kassel, West Germany 1976 "II Triennale of Photography," Israel Museum, Jerusalem 1975 "IXe Biennale de Paris," Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris: "Venice Biennale," Italy SARAH CHARLESWORTH Born 1947. East Orange, New Jersey Resides New York City SELECTED SOLO EXHIBITIONS 1992 "Special Project: Herald Tribune: November, 1977; Herald Tribune: June 18-February 28, 1991." The Queens Museum, Flushing. New York 1991 Paley Wright Gallery, London (with Graham Gussin): Jay Gorney Modern Art, New York City 1990 S.L. Simpson Gallery, Toronto 1989 Jay Gorney Modern Art, New York City; Interim Art, London 1988 Gallery Hufkens Noirhomme, Brussels 1987 Margo Leavin Gallery, Los Angeles (with Joel Otterson) 1986 S.L. Simpson Gallery, Toronto 1985 California Museum of Photography, University of California, Riverside 1984 Light Work, Syracuse, New York; The Clocktower Gallery, New York City 1982 Larry Gagosian. New York City: CEPA Gallery, Buffalo, New York 1981 Galerie Micheline Scwajcer, Antwerp, Belgium 1980 Tony Shafrazi Gallery,